2 - THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
The Jews are a nation held together by their commom enemies. (Note 3.)
With the Jews Nationality and Religion are inseparable and co-extensive.
All groups of Jews from the extreme radicals (Poole Zionist) to the most
conservative, are united in this National Religious Movement.
Once a Jew always a Jew.
The teachings of the Talmud still exercises a profound influence on Jewish
Judaism and Socialism are different expressions of the same movement.
The Jews consider themselves the original exponents of internationalism and
the League of Nations. (Note 4.)
coming of a world war is predicted which the Jews are to secretly promote.
The creation of the chaos of Bolshevism is described as to be worked out by
Jews all over the world as a step towards Jewish world dominion. For a fuller
discussion of these and similar illustrations see Appendix B.
Herzl’s "Jewish State" page 4, and Dr. Solomon Prest, of the United
Synagogues of America. (New York Times, June 17, 1919, page 3.)
4: For a
full discussion of these principles with citations from Moses Hess, Theodor
Herzl, Bernard Lazarre, H. Sacher and the lectures now being distributed by
the Zionist Organization in America, see Appendix C.
7 of doc. begins]
any event the Protocols are of suggestive value in the study of present-day
International Jewry. They indicate possible or probable fields of Jewish
activities, aims and methods, and as such, without relying on them at all as
evidence in themselves, we have used them as a point of departure for some
phases of our study.
8 of doc. begins]
HOW FAR IS JEWRY, AS SUCH, CONNECTED WITH BOLSHEVISM, NOT ONLY IN THE
SOVIET GOVERNMENT OF RUSSIA AND HUNGARY BUT IN ALL OTHER COUNTRIES OF THE
WORLD AND PARTICULARLY IN GERMANY AND IN THE UNITED STATES.
There is, of course, a vast amount of material in the Department relating to
this problem. Here, however, a mere outline will be sufficient to indicate
the general tendencies. The following quotation will illustrate the
widespread participation of Jews in all revolutionary movements:
Theodore Herzl’s "JEWISH STATE".
8. "Educated Jews without means are fast becoming Socialists."
10. "When we sink we become a revolutionary proletariat, the subordinate
officers of the revolutionary party."
Theodor Herzl’s "CONGRESS ADDRESSES".
13. "That the Jews constitute a disintegrating element is habitually
Lecture on "SOCIAL ZIONISM” published and now circulated by the Zionist
organization of America.
4. "From the days of the prophets down to the present time the Jew has
been the inveterate enemy of tyranny and our contribution to the ranks of
labor leaders and social philosophers is one of the marvels of history. In
ancient times it was Isaiah, Jeremiah and the lesser Prophets who thundered
agains those who added "house to house” while the common people were
suffering against huger and privations. The thinkers and leaders of the
Socialist Party during the last century, Karl Marx, Ferdinand Lasalle and
many others were Jews, even though some of them sold their birthright for
"a mess of pottage". In fact any careful historian must come to the
conclusion that the Jews are a race representing the great social factor in
Rabbi Judah L. Magnus, who has been very closely associated with Jacob H.
Schiff, in a speech before the Jewish Labor Congress January 15, 1919
published in the JEWISH FORUM for February 1919 states:
722: "When the Jew gives his thought, his devotion to the cause of the
workers and of the dispossessed,
9 of doc.begins]
the disinherited of the world, the radical quality within him there, too,
goes to the root of things, and in Germany he comes as Marx and a Lasalle, a
Haas and an Edward Bernstein; in Austria he becomes a Victor Adler and a
Friederich Adler; in Russia a Trotsky. Just take for a moment the present
situation in Russia and Germany. The Revolution set creative forces free, and
see what a large company of Jews was available for immediate service.
Socialist Revolutionaries and Mensheviki; Bolsheviki; Majority and Minority
Socialists whatever they be called ******* Jews are to be found among the
trusted leaders and the routine workers of all those revolutionary
of the witnesses who testified before the Senate Committee stated quite
definitely that most of the prominent Bolshevik leaders were Jews. The
following are quotations from one or two:
Mr. Theodor Kryshtofovitch (page 424 Senate Record):
of the people governing Russia now are Jews. I am not against Jews in
general. They are a very capable and energetic people, but as you Americans
say, the right man must be in the right place. Their place is in the Commission
Houses, in Banks, in the offices, but not in the government of a fine
agricultural country. They do not understand anything about agriculture,
about production, about keeping materials and about distribution ********* I
am talking about Bolsheviki; because if you take our Bolshevik Government,
Lenine is a Russian and all these constellations that are turning around this
sun are Jews. They have changed their names. For instance, Trotsky is not
Trotsky but Bronstein."
on page 431 he says:
oppose the Russian clergy and the Russian clergy oppose the Bolsheviki, and
the Russian priests are treated very badly. For instance, they are set to do
street work, cleaning the streets, paving streets, digging ditches, and so
on. The workmen told me several times: ‘The Bolsheviki are sending out
priests to work in the streets. Why do they not send their Rabbis ?’ And that
is true. The Jewish Rabbis are not sent to work on the streets."
V. S. Hurban, the leader of the Checho-Slovaks in Russia (page 444 of the
is also logical that the morals of the officials should be corrupt. I cannot
deny it because it is a fact, and it is useless to deny it, that in the
Soviets from the beginning there have been a very large percentage of Jews. It
cannnot be denied. I can explain myself. We cannot blame them because it is
just their revenge."
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following appears in a despatch to the Department, describing conditions in
Hungary, quoted on page 37 of the confidential weekly report of the Division
of Western European Affairs for June 28, 1919:
the Communist Commissaries (of whom 25 out of 32 are Jews), several are
assigned to each department."
a sample of general frank public comment on the Bolshevik regime in Hungary
may be cited the following from an article on "The Forces of
Disintegration” appering in THE NEW EUROPE of June 19, 1919:
internal situation in Hungary is comparatively simple at this moment. The
issue of the war involved the bankruptcy of the whole ruling oligarchy and of
the Jewish parasites who had battened upon them for over a generation past.
But while the former fell with a resounding crash, a large section of the
latter suddenly laid violent hands upon the machine of the State, and have
since the Spring been endeavoring to recover, under a mask of advanced
Communist theories, fragments of what the old imperialism had lost to the
Magyar State. ********** Meanwhile we need be under no illusions as to the
present regime in Hungary. In Budapest such illusions have long since
vanished, and all who come from there tell the same tale. The present
Communist Government of Budapest is merely a glorified edition of
"Sussex Street". Bela Kun - a convicted thief who is proud of his
record and brags publicly of his capacity for lying - is on a par with Peter
the Painter, while his colleagues (save a couple of honest doctrinaires, and
an occasional figurehead selected for purposes of camouflage) are altogether
worthy of him.
early efforts of the Bolsheviki to get control in Russia were financed by
German Government, largely through the German Jewish banking firm of M. N.
Warburg and Company of Hamburg, established in 1798, one of the most powerful
banks in all of Germany, and instrumental in directing the international
policy of the old German Empire. Max Warburg, head of this firm, cooperated
in this matter with his brother Fritz, Financial Attache of the German
Legation at Stockholm and as such, head of and general paymaster
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the German spy system. Practically all of the men who participated in the
negotiations with the Bolsheviki in turning over these funds were Jews.
number of the returning Military Attaches as for example, Lieutenant Waldo
from The Hague, have emphasized that the personnel, methods and aims of the
new German Foreign Office were, in a large measure, the same as those of the
the statement in the BRITISH CONFIDENTIAL WEEKLY REVIEW for June 4, 1919
(page 2) would seem at least possible:
is accumulating that the German Government directed the Munich Revolution
through Agents provocateurs. The "ROTE FAHNE” seems to have been
under Government control, and an organization called: "VEREINIGUNG ZU
BEKAMPFUNG DES BOLSHEVISMUS”, and espionage association covering the whole of
Germany, had exact information on every phase of the Munich rising. This
association is headed by Prussian Officers and works in connection with the
3 - THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
Concerning the leaders of the Munich Soviet Revolution, Ben Hecht, himself
a radical, in a cable published in the CHICAGO DAILY NEWS said:
for the Communist leaders in Bavaria, for instance Toller, Levine, Muhsam,
Landauer, Lipp, and, in fact, all whom I met in the April Soviet days in
Munich, were Jews."
to the general Jewish influence in Germany, Hecht states:
of the tragi-comic sides of the feverish German situation today is the
position of the German Jews. Although less than one per cent of the German
population consists of Jews, fully 75% of its present leaders -
conservative and radical - are Semitic. The only political party which has
no Jewish leaders is the centre or Catholic party, controlled by Mathias
Erzberger. In Weimar, however, I have seen numerous centrist delegates to
the national assembly whose Catholicism was political rather than racial.
for the majority socialist, it must be remembered that the socialist party
was founded by Karl Marx, a Jew, and co-ordinated by Ferdinand Lasalle and
the elder Liebknecht, also Jews, while it was economically developed by
Singer, another Jew. On the other hand the most active anti-socialist
leaders in Germany - Theodor Wolff, George Bernhard and a dozen others of
similar standing - are likewise Jews.
Haase, leader of the independent socialist party, is a Jew, as are
practically all of its more important leaders, with the exception of Dr.
all of the newspaper editors and publicists whom I have encountered, from
Maximilian Harden up and down the line, are Jews, and, so far as I can make
out, nearly all the Berlin bankers are of the same race."
12 of doc. begins]
April 8, 1919, the LONDON MORNING POST in an editorial commenting on the
part the Jews were taking in Russian Bolshevism and the further fact that
two of the leading British Jewish papers were openly pro-Bolshevik, stated:
have mentioned several times the disagreeable fact that the Russian
Bolsheviks were Jews. These Jews are at the present moment in control of
the Russian Government and they have powerful friends in all the Allied
countries, who are helping them. We have appealed to the British Jews, but
appealed so far in vain, to dissociate themselves from the cause which is
doing the Jewish people terrible harm in all parts of the world. In reply
the Jewish press shower upon us not only abuse but threats."
article brought forth a letter published in the LONDON POST of April 23, 1919
signed by the following ten leading British Jews:
Lionel de Rothschild, M.P.
Philip Magnus, Bart, M.P.
Sir Marcus Samuel, Bart
Honorable Sir Harry S. Samuel, M.P.
Leonard L. Cohen
Sir Israel Gollancz
Lieutenant-General Sir John
Claude G. Montefiore
Isidore Spielmann, C.M.G.
letter stated in part:
have read with the deepest concern and with sincere regret certain articles
which have recently appeared in two closely associated Jewish newspapers in
this country on the topic of Bolshevism and its "ideals". In our
opinion, the publication of these articles can have no other effect than to
encourage the adoption of the theoretic principles of Russian Bolsheviks
among foreign Jews who have sought and found refuge in England. We welcome,
accordingly, your suggestion that British Jews should "dissociate
themselves from a cause which is doing the Jewish people harm in all parts
of the world". This is profoundly true, and we, on our own behalf and
on behalf of numbers of British Jews, with whom we have conferred, desire
to dissociate themselves absolutely and unreservedly from the mischievous
and misleading doctrine which those articles are calculated to disseminate.
We repudiate them as dangerous in themselves and as false to the tenets
teachings of Judaism.
in order to counteract the mistaken policy of the newspapers referred to,
the League of British Jews was founded in November 1917. The proceedings
and views of the League are published in a monthly bulletin, entitled
JEWISH OPINION which can be obtained at the Offices of the League, 708-709,
Salisbury House, E.C. 2, and which may eventually be merged
13 of doc. begins]
a larger journal appearing at more frequent intervals. For we thoroughly
concur with your criticism that the "British Jewish Community”, most
of whom, as you rightly say, are by no means in sympathy with this
(Nationalist) crusade, are being served very badly by their
newspapers". Meanwhile we take this opportunity of repudiating in
public the particular statements in those newspapers to which you have felt
it your duty to call attention."
date of February 15, 1919 Louis Marshall in denying the charges made before
the Senate Committee that the New York East Side was Bolshevist and had
furnished many Russian Bolshevists Commissars said: (Page 379 of the Senate
read the Yiddish newspapers and am constantly called into consultation and
conference with respect to every imaginable movement that can concern the
public which affects the East Side, and I can, therefore, speak with
authority when I say that there never has been a baser slander uttered than
to charge by innuendo that the Jews of the East Side are Bolshevists."
a report dated May 20, 1919, M. C. Keyes, Treasury Secret Service Agent
Dr. Simons, formerly a resident of Russia made the statement that "90%
of the Bolsheviks in New York were Jews”, the entire radical element in New
York rose in arms and through the influence that they could exert they
villified a man whose only crime was being too modest in his calculations.
I am satisfied that instead of 90% it should be nearer the actual amount to
say that 95% of the Bolsheviks are Jews. Only recently I had the
opportunity to look over the records of one Soviet branch in New York. Out
of a membership of 700, 625 were Jews. ****** ”
June 17, 1919 a conversation was overheard between Nuorteva and Charles
Recht, both Bolshevist Jews, in New York, in which it wa stated that the
entire 500,000 Jews of the East Side were Bolshevists.
Consul R. B. Dennis testyfying before the Senate Committee said: (Page 178
of the Senate Record)
Dennis: I do not know whether this belongs in this hearing or not, but a
thing that interested me very much was to discover a number of men in
positions of power, commissars in the cities here and there in Russia, who
had lived in America.
Nelson: Who had been graduated here ?
14 of doc. begins]
Nelson: Where had they lived mostly, in New York ?
Dennis: In the industrial centers. I met a number of them and I sat around
and listened to attacks upon America that I would not take from any man in
this country; but I took it over there because I was asking favors, and I
was not in a position to get into an altercation, as I did not want to get
Nelson: Were the men who had lived for years in this country, and had gone
back there, occupying prominent positions in the Bolshevik Government ?
Dennis: Yes Sir.
Wolcott: In the main, of what nationality were they ?
Wolcott: German Hebrews ?
Dennis: Russian Hebrews. The men that I met there had lived in America
according to their stories, anywhere from 5 to 12 years.
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THE POLISH QUESTION
Has the Jewish anti-Polish propaganda in the United States been based on actual
widespread Jewish pogroms ?
Marshall, Judge Mack, Jacob Schiff, Israel Cohen, the British Zionist
investigator, and other Jewish leaders all answer "yes".
Gibson, United States Minister to Poland on the other hand says the stories
have been greatly exaggerated. For this statement he has been bitterly
villified by Mr. Marshall and the American-Jewish News. Mr. Gibson also
reported that many of the exaggerated pogroms stories were traceable to
German propaganda sent out by way of Copenhagen. In this he is corroborated
by the report of Colonel Mason of the Military Intelligence, General Staff,
who spent a month in Poland during March and April.
following quotation from Professor Askenazy, a Polish-Jewish educator and
historian of Warsaw, appearing in the NEW YORK WORLD of July 2, 1919 and
reprinted in FREE POLAND for July 16, 1919, would seem to present an
outside world is getting an entirely exaggerated idea, and I see my
co-religionists in New York are acting on what was evidently unverified
information coming from many sources. They have denounced Poland for things
which never happened. With Poland young and struggling and beset with
enemies it has enough trouble without having attacks from our people, who
have always received better treatment from the Poles than from any other
people in Eastern Europe. ****
4 - THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL JEWRY
is true that there have been local outbreaks against the Jews, for
special reasons, due to upset conditions, and tales about Jewish
profiteering, particularly from Russian Bolshevik Jews, who are trying to
upset the Polish nationalist spirit. **** I remark with wonder that the
leaders of America’s greatest Jewish societies are lending themselves to
this movement, for all this agitation in America is only helping Germany
and Bolshevik Russia. *** Whenever one Jew has been hurt in Poland, Jews
say ten were killed and Germans say a thousand. If a Jew is killed in
conflict, like the Jews in Vilna who fought with the Bolsheviki, the
German press immediately spreads a tale of a Polish pogrom in Vilna."
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Have the Jewish Zionists as a part of a definite propaganda to get for
the Jews of Poland minority rights, deliberately exaggerated the stories
of pogroms in Poland ?
BILL OF RIGHTS adopted at the American-Jewish Congress at Philadelphia on
December 19, 1918, requested the Peace Conference to grant to the Jews in
new or enlarged states to be created by the Conference, autonomous
management of all Jewish communal institutions and insisted that such
autonomy be a condition precedent to the creation of any such state.
Poland being the largest and most important new state thus to be formed,
it was natural that the Jews should center their efforts on establishing
this principle there.
quote from one of their own number, (Israel Cohen, in the WASHINGTON
POST, May 30, 1919):
is only one way in which the civil equality of the Jews can be preserved
and that is by their being given the rights of a national minority. The
Jews should be given autonomy as far as the administration of their
religious, cultural, social and charitable affairs are concerned, but
they should also be constituted a separate electoral college with the
right to proportional representation in the Polish Parliament. And in
order to establish a good working understanding between them and the
government, it is advisable that there should be a ministry of Jewish
affairs, the head of which should be responsible to a representative
council of the organized Jewish communities."
Polish protest against the published demands of the Jews was followed by
a publicity campaign to create a sentiment hostile to Poland, principally
in the United States, for use at the Peace Conference in support of the
the United States the propaganda adopted by the Jews took two forms: (1)
Newspaper attacks, and (2) organized protest meetings, parades and
A careful reading of the prominent articles concerning alleged atrocities
against the Jews in Poland which began appearing simultaneously in the
leading American papers about the middle of May, shows a striking
similarity in form, in substance and in
17 of doc. begins]
a similarity so striking as to have no other reasonable explanation than
that of a thoroughly planned propaganda. Information has come to us at
second-hand that Reuben Fink, Washington representative of the Zionists,
supervised the dissemination of this newspaper material. Confidential
despatches from Copenhagen describe a German inspired organization abroad
to supply news of pogroms for publication in the American-Jewish press.
of the first stories published in May were based on a report of Israel
Cohen published in the LONDON TIMES of February 14, 1919. For example, on
May 28, 1919 the NEW YORK HERALD and the WASHINGTON POST ran front page
accounts by Herman Bernstein of Cohen’s report, but the phrasing was such
as to lead the readers to believe that they described Pogroms which were
still going on, whereas, Cohen was actually reporting as to events in
November, December and January when, as is well known, during the chaos
attendant on the triangular struggle with the Germans’ retreating and
attempting to turn the country over to the Bolsheviki, and the Poles
asserting their National Independence against both groups, there were, of
course, many Jews, Poles, Germans and Bolshevists killed. Moreover, Cohen
only recited the killing of 161 people during the entire three months
covered by his report.
with this the statement of Rabbi Tittlebaum (State Department I. B.
861.4016/245 [decipherment may not be accurate]) concerning the
persecution of the Jews in Southern Russia, in which he tells of the
killing and wounding of hundreds of thousands, 5000 being killed in the
town of Proscorof alone. There has been little publicity about this in
the United States, probably because it would defeat the purpose of the
Zionist propaganda as showing that the outbreaks against the Jews in
Poland were more restrained and accompanied by much less loss of life
that those in other places where chaotic conditions prevailed, such as
18 of doc. begins]
further illustration of the way false stories of atrocities were used is
shown by the articles about Vilna. The Department received word in May
that the Zionist Bureau at Berlin reported 200 Jews killed at Vilna. On
June 8, 1919 the WASHINGTON POST, NEW YORK TIMES and others carried a
story from Paris under a large headline saying: "1600 Jews killed at
Vilna." From Gibson’s reports (telegram June 17, 1919), it appears
that 64 Jews were shot and at least ten of them were admitted by the
Jewish representatives to have been killed in the house-to-house fighting
by which the Poles took the city from the Bolsheviki.
In all the principal cities of the United States mass meetings were held,
preceded by parades for which the Jewish workmen obtained a half holiday.
The principal meeting was held at Madison Square Garden, New York on May
21, 1919 following a series of parades and other thoroughly organized
demonstrations in which a large number of the Jews of the East Side
participated. The most important addresses were made by Charles E. Hughes
and Jacob Schiff. Mr. Hughes in defending himself against the charge by
the Poles that he was playing politics, and had no facts upon which to
base his protest, stated that "a careful investigation should
speedily be had, but in the meantime the report which have come in -
vouched for by such men as Judge Mack and Louis Marshall, men of
recognized standing, ability and probity, - justify in my opinion, the
most earnest protest."
determining whether Mr. Hughes was warranted in accepting this ex parte
statement, it should be noted that both Judge Mack and Mr. Marshall, as
well as Jacob Schiff, are all members of the Executive Committee of the
Jewish Kehillah in New York, which Committee has as its Chairman Rabbi
Judah L. Magnus who, at one time, was very pro-German and is now an open
and avowed advocate of Bolshevism both in Russia and in the United States.
As to the Kehillah itself, while it is ostensibly interested solely in
Jewish Community work, some question has been raised to its alleged
pro-German and subsequent pro-
19 of doc. begins]
tendencies. Furthermore, Mr. Marshall’s partner, Samuel Untermeyer,
received considerable notoriety at the Senate hearing on German
propaganda because of his pro-German activity. Mr. Untermeyer has now
appeared as chief counsel for the Rand School and the American Socialist
Society in defending their charter.
the NEW YORK TIMES of May 24, 1919, Felix M. Warburg is quoted as saying:
is to be regretted that the protest meetings of the Jews against the
Pogroms which have taken place, in the desire to prevent further ones,
appear in the papers as an attempt by the Jews to prejudice Americans
against the new Polish Government."
the Jews are deeply interested in the welfare of their co-religionists,
of whom about 5,000,000 are not living in the new Poland. What these
protests mean is simply an earnest pleading that every possible step,
official and unofficial, be taken by the new Polish Government to prevent
outbreaks by an excited populace which, feeling its new strength and old
prejudices may, if not held in check, break loose when not watched. That
is all we hope for."
a commentary on this interview the following extracts from an article
entitled "PEACE WITHOUT HONOR” by G. K. Chesterton, appearing in THE
NEW WITNESS, an English anti-Semitic paper, of April 18, 1919, page 494,
seems in point:
concerns us in the crisis of Europe is the facts, and when we know we are
dealing with the facts of hatred, we connot be confused or even delayed
by the fiction of hypocrisy. ***** and the fact is not that the Jews wish
well to the new State, but that the Jews are at this moment using all
their keen intellectual activity and their deep racial loyalty, working
all over the world at high pressure, to prevent the new Polish State
coming into existance at all."
We know that if they lose their port (Danzig) it will not be by any act
of English public opinion or any public opinion, but by the most secret
of all secret diplomacy; that it will not even be given up by the English
to the Germans, but by the Germans Jews to other German Jews."
a further comment in the attitude of the Polish Jews themselves toward
the new Polish State may be quoted the following from Colonel Mason’s
has recently put into effect a universal draft law, and the army is being
mobilized under it. The men
20 of doc. begins]
collected at training stations and are receiving training under the
general supervision of a French General, the actual instructors being
Poles who have had military training or experience in either the German,
Austrian or Russian armies. The army is very largely composed of Poles.
Upon the passage of the draft law, 90% of the Jews of the country called
for what is known as the blue ticket, which is an exemption certificate
given to those who are aliens. Incidentally this has an important
political bearing as being an official announcement by 90% of the Polish
Jews that they consider themselves not Poles but Jews per se."
a result of the publicity given these Jewish and German inspired
anti-Polish protests, both in this country and abroad, the Poles were
defeated and "The Combined Jewish Committees of the World” headed by
Mr. Louis Marshall were able to secure (1) the special provisions set out
in Articles 8 to 12, inclusive, of the Polish Treaty and, (2) the general
acquiescence in these provisions on the part of the American Press. The
American Poles, however, are more bitter than ever in their denouncement
of these articles as undemocratic and un-American. Because of this
attitude on their part it seems in point to analyze the articles in
provides that racial, religious and linguistic minorities shall have the
right to establish, manage and control, at their own expense, charitable,
religious and social institution and schools, with the right to use
their own language and to exercise their own religion freely therein.
provides (Paragraph 1) that in public schools where there is a
considerable proportion of Polish nationals of other than Polish
speech the children shall be taught in their own language.
(Paragraph 2) Racial, religious and linguistic minorities shall be
assured an equitable share in the enjoyment and application of the
sums which may be provided out of public funds ***** for educational,
religious or charitable purposes. (This paragraph would appear to
supercede in a large measure Article 8 above.)
PART 5 - THE POWER AND AIMS OF INTERNATIONAL
Article 10 - Educational Committee appointed locally by
Jewish communities will provide for distribution of proportional share
of public funds allocated to Jewish schools in accordance with Article
9 and for organization and management of these schools. The provisions
of Article 9 concerning the use of language in schools shall apply to
[page 21 of doc. begins]
Article 11 - provides that Jews shall not be compelled to
violate their Sabbath and that no elections or registration shall be
held on a Saturday.
Article 12 - provides that the foregoing provisions
constitute obligations of international concern and shall he placed
under the guarantee of the League of Nations, no change to be made
without the consent of majority of council of League of Nations which
will be binding on the United States and the leading Allies. Any member
of the League Council can call attention of the Council to possible
infraction, and Coucil may take jurisdiction of question.
Mr. Marshall in an interview of July 24, 1919 said: "The
rights which have been secured have not been affected in favor of the
Jews alone, but for all minorities." In this connection it is
worthy of notice that Article 10 and 11 relate solely to the
In an earlier interview of June 30, 1919 (NEW YORK TIMES, July
1) Mr. Marshall said:
"Nothing thus far accomplished by the Peace Conference
exceeds in importance the Polish Treaty. **** It is literally a charter
of Liberty and the final act of emancipation of those who, for
centuries, have been bereft of elemental human rights. ******* It
enshrines in the law of nations the eternal principles of human liberty
that constitute the distinctive features of the Ameican Constitution by
means of which, despite the divergent racial elements of our
population, we have become in fact as well as in spirit, a homogeneous,
patriotic, just nation. We have long appreciated what at last is to
enter into the consciousness of all people - that the true purpose of
government cannot be realized until majorities look upon minorities as
their equal before the law."
This statement is misleading because it gives the reader the idea
that the rights granted the Jews in Poland are only those enjoyed by
Jewish Americans whereas, quite the contrary is true. Another
interesting point is that this interview bears the same date as the
text of the Polish Treaty, namely, June 30, 1919, but the interview
appeared July 1, 1919 in the NEW YORK TIMES, while the Treaty was
withheld until the day following.
Premier Clemenceau as quoted in the NEW YORK TIMES of July 2d
defended the provisions above set out saying:
"The following articles are of a rather different nature,
in that they provide special privileges to certain groups of�
[page 22 of doc. begins]
these minorities: ****
"Six - Clauses 10 and 12 deal specifically with the Jewish
citizens of Poland. The information at the disposal of the principal
Allied and Associated Powers as to the existing relations between the
Jews and the other Polish citizens has led them to the conclusion that
in view of the historical development of the Jewish question and the
great animosity aroused by it, special protection is necessary for the
Jews of Poland. These clauses have been limited to the minimum which
seems necessary under the circumstances of the present day, viz., the
maintenance of Jewish schools and the protection of the Jews in the
religious observance of their Sabbath.
It is believed that these stipulations will not create any
obstacle to the political unity of Poland. They do not constitute any
recognition of the Jews as a separate political community within the
Polish State. The educational provisions contain nothing beyond what is
in fact provided in the educational institutions of many highly
organized modern states. There is nothing inconsistent with the
sovereignty of the State in recognizing and supporting schools in which
children shall be brought up in the religious influence to which they
are accustomed in their home. Ample safeguards against any use of
non-Polish language to encourage a spirit of national separation have
been provided in the express acknowledgment that the provisions of this
Treaty do not prevent the Polish State from making the Polish language
obligatory in all its schools and educational institutions."
In an editorial in the NEW YORK TIMES of July 25, 1919 it is
frankly admitted that the rights granted to the Jews in Poland would
not be tolerated for a moment in this country and offers the weak
excuse for differentiation that our immigrants came here voluntarily
while the racial minorities in Eastern Europe have been there for
thousands of years. This utterly misses the real point of the
criticism, going to the ultimate justice of the rights granted.
Says the TIMES: - "Those in this country who have feared
that our participation in this arrangement will make it easy for
European nations to demand similar liberties for naturalized citizens
in this country and thus make impossible any attempt at real
Americanization are somewhat unduly alarmed. Most of the rights
included in the term "cultural autonomy� are already possessed by everybody in
America. Some of them are not: the provision for separate schools in
which the mother tongue of the pupils is the language of instruction,
though the language of the State must also be taught, and taught
satisfactorily, would only perpetuate a condition which German
immigrants have brought about in some parts of this country; but the
further provision that such schools should receive part of the State
funds would, of course, be inadmissible here - though we have heard
in the last year or two of American public schools in which German is
about the only language known to teachers and pupils. Such guarantees
would also perpetuate the foreign language press.
[page 23 of doc. begins]
"But no racial group in America has any reason or right to claim
privileges such as are provided in the Polish Treaty, since they
are all recent immigrants who of their own choice came to a country
which had its own institutions and used the English language. The
racial minorities of Eastern Europe have dwelt alongside other people,
intermingled beyond any hope of complete separation, for hundreds and
sometimes thousands of years."
In further relation to Mr. Marshall the following additional
facts are of interest:
(1) On June 7th the Department issued a statement giving a
summary of Mr. Gibson�s
reports to the effects that the stories as to pogroms were greatly
(2) On June 10th Mr. Marshall gave out in Paris a report from
his personal representative in Poland in which it was stated:
8 "In its horror and system the acts recalled the worst
epochs of the Middle Ages."
(3) This was followed on June 17th by a statement from Mr.
Marshall making a bitter and vituperative attack on Mr. Gibson,
charging that "Gibson�s
report is necessarily based on the merest hearsay, parrot-like
repetition of what has been told him in court circles." Many
specific charges of cruelty were also set out including several which
have since been reported by Mr. Gibson as unfounded.
This statement was played up in "THE JEWISH DAILY NEWS� (New York) of June 18th under the headlines
"Mr. Gibson Indicted". The article stated:
"Mr. Louis Marshall, chairman of the Jewish Delegation in
Paris, has not permitted the grass to grow beneath his feet. No sooner
did Mr. Hugh Gibson, whose nomination as Ambassador to Poland is now
before the Senate, report to the State Department that there were no
pogroms in Poland that Mr. Marshall set to work to show that Mr. Gibson
"has reported contrary to facts". Through Mr. Charles A.
Selden, the Paris correspondent of the "NEW YORK TIMES�, Mr. Marshall issued a statement giving
chapter and verse of the atrocities committed against the Jews in
Poland by the Poles themselves. From the statement which appears on
this page, it will be seen that the Poles admitted the pogroms, yet Mr.
Gibson never heard of pogroms or knows anything of them. In other words
his report is an attempt to whitewash the Poles." ***** In view of
statement, and the attitude adopted by Mr. Gibson, we do not think the
latter is the proper person to represent this country in Poland. His
nomination is, as we have already said, now pending before the United
States Senate. We have felt it our duty to protest against Mr. Gibson�s confirmation by the Senate and have sent the
following telegram to Senator Calder, Wadsworth and Penrose:
[page 24 of doc. begins]
indictment of Hugh Gibson, him deliberately reporting conditions in
Poland contrary to facts, as printed in today�s �NEW
makes Mr. Gibson unfit to be American Ambassador to Poland. We appeal
to you to block confirmation of his nomination.�
"We want to go on record that a man who in toto denies the
wantom slaughter of human beings, of old men and women, of young girls
and little children, is not the man to whom should be entrusted so
important a post as the American Ambassadorship to Poland.
If the stories of the pogroms had been found to be untrue we
would have accepted Mr. Gibson�s
report, but when he bases his finding upon mere hearsay, we must
In relation to the deliberate campaign to defeat Mr. Gibson�s confirmation, shown in the above quotation,
added significance attaches to the confidential report to the
Department from Secretary Lansing contained in telegram No. 2910 of
June 26, 5 p.m. that "Judge Brandeis and Felix Frankfurter in
conversation with Gibson yesterday, intimated that confirmation of his
appointment by the Senate might be jeopardized by the nature of his
reports which they stated had done great harm to the Jewish race."
(6) On June 19, 1919 the American Mission stated in a telegram
to the Department that Marshall and Cyrus Adler advised Ambassador
Morganthau to decline to serve on the President�s commission to investigate pogroms against
Jews and Jewish persecutions "urging that no Jew be
appointed". The telegram continued: "Mr. Morganthau is in
doubt and requests that you promptly ascertain the opinion of Schiff,
Elkus, Nathan Strauss, Wise, Rosenwald and Samuel Lachman as to his
On June 23, 1919 the Department sent duplicate telegrams to
Louis Marshall at Paris and Felix Frankfurter in London conveying the
following message from Judge Mack:
"All parties consulted advised Morganthau to decline
appointment. Schiff, Elkus, Mack, Rosenwald, Wise, Nathan Strauss in
wire to President are suggesting postponement until his return of
commission and legal and technical advisors, but if inadvisable
suggesting he consult Marshall and Frankfurter before acting. We have
been allowed to see all of Gibson�s
despatches. Statement commented on by Marshall erroneously attributed
to Gibson, who is shortly due in Paris. Have requested that Gibson�s report be shown to Marshall. After seeing
them and Gibson, advise strongly additional statement by Marshall.
[page 25 of doc. begins]
It seems quite possible that these Jewish leaders realized that
an honest report would destroy the ammunition for their anti-Polish
propaganda and show up more strikingly the utter unfairness of the
attack on Mr. Gibson�s
November 22, 2001
PART 6 - of THE POWER AND AIMS OF
... (7) On July 24 Mr. Marshall stated that:
"The horror of the Pogroms in Poland and Ukrainia will
‘stagger the world’ when the truth becomes known. Tens of thousands
of Jews have been killed. The pogroms were not so much the result of
an organized movement as they were the outgrowth of unsettled
anarchistic tendencies in the countries where they occurred. They
found expression in attacks of Jews."
Heretofore he has never mentioned the Ukraine in his
interviews, except very casually.
On August 1, 1919 Mr. Marshall made public the following
telegram dated July 30, 1919 from Leo Motkin, Secretary of the
"Combined Jewish Committee of the World” at Paris:
"Zuckerman arrived and confirms former communications. He
reports new and terrible Pogroms which occurred during June at
Kaminets, Podolsk, Kitaigorod, Ourinine, et cetera. The latest news
is certified by three Rabbis and by other Jewish representatives at
Khotine. I know these men who are from the Ukraine. They state that
altogether 120,000 have been killed. In Proskurof alone 3,964
inhabitants and numerous passing people have been killed and 2,000
wounded. Among the killed were 1500 school children. Ukrainian
Judaism fears total extermination. It is impossible to check the
exact figures. In all of the pogroms undoubtedly dozens of thousands
have been massacred."
The Department has in its files a despatch (heretofore
referred to on Page 17) dated April 2, 1919 from the American
Commissioner at Constantinople quoting Rabbi Tittlebaum in which he
stated hundreds of thousand of Jews had been killed and wounded in
the Ukraine and that 5000 were killed in Proscorog alone. This
information undoubtedly came to Mr. Marshall in April. Why then, has
the story remained unpublished all these months ? It is asserted by
the Poles to be because such a publication would have weakened, if
not utterly destroyed the case which they claim the Jews were so
laborously building up in support of their minority rights in Poland.
[page 26 of doc. begins]
On August 2, 1919 the day following the publication of the
above telegram, the Ukrainian National Committee in New York issued a
statement in part as follows:
"There are not and have not been pogroms in Ukraine
outside the zone of Bolshevism. While unfortunately it probably is
true that there have been many innocent victims of lawless bands in
Ukraine, just as there have been Jewish victims of the Polish
soldiery in Galicia, the killings are the work of the Bolsheviki and
the Bolsheviki alone." ******
"The Ukrainian People’s Republic has granted autonomy to
all national minorities, including the Jews. Special privileges have
been granted the Jews and members of the race are not only members of
the General Rada but are included in the ministry. The
Ukrainian paper money even bears inscriptions in Jewish characters.
It is significant fact that the Ukrainian Jews have never raised a
single protest against Petlura’s government, but have always
supported it heartily."
"Petlura, of course, has not been able to prevent pogroms
in the portion of Russian Ukraine controlled by the Bolsheviki or the
part of Galician Ukraine overrun by the Polish imperialists. He is
making progress in both sections, however, and when he has restored
the entire Ukrainian territory to the Ukrainians there will be no
massacres in Ukraine."
Whether the cooperation between the Jews and the Ukrainians
here shown is born simply of their mutual hatred of the Poles, or
whether in addition the Ukrainians are receiving financial support
from the Jews, it is in any case particularly interesting just now
when the Department is being flooded with anti-Polish protests from
the Ukrainians and Lithuanians in this country and in Canada.
At least one group of the Ukrainians, were openly pro-German
and pro-Austrian during the war and there is evidence that in this
connection it should be recalled that the Ukrainian separatist
movement was started by Austria.
As to the Lithuanians and their relations with the Jews here
in America may be cited the full page ad which appeared in the NEW
YORK TIMES, NEW YORK WORLD, CHICAGO TRIBUNE, BOSTON POST and
WASHINGTON POST on June 3 and 4, 1919, protesting against
[page 27 of doc. begins]
Imperialism and Jewish Massacres". In this ad appears a
letter from the Lithuanian National Council to the Secretary of the
American Committee for the Defence of the Jews in Poland, which
contains the following:
"Your cause is our cause as well. The cause of all
oppressed people the world over strikes a responsive chord in our
hearts, but you have in common with us the additional fact that your
oppressors are also our oppressors."
"Using Bolshevism as a pretext, Poland has invaded, and
is now occupying, large parts of Lithuania. Its troops are there
indulging in atrocities so horrible that the entire liberal opinion
of the world stands aghast and raises the query once more whether
Poland can really be trusted with the powers of
[page 28 of doc. begins]
(c) How serious is the nation-wide boycott against all Jews
and Jewish goods recently started by the Americans of Polish descent
and their Slavic sympathizers ?
The Foreign Language Bureau of the Government Loan
Organization of the United States Treasury in a report of June 4,
"The demonstrations of May 21st, participated in by the
Jewish people all through the United States in the form of a public
protest against the persecution of the Jews in Poland, has produced
on the part of the Polish population in the U. S. A. (nearly
4,000,000) a well managed, quietly conducted commercial and financial
boycott of all Jewish merchants and vendors.
Both sides of the controversy have had ample public hearing in
the Press of the U. S. A. The Poles privately maintain that the Jews
are disappointed in the development of Poland into a free and
independent Nation as the ambition of Jewish leaders for many
generations has been to make of Poland a Jewish economic state
commanding the commercial and financial channels of Eastern Europe,
under a German protectorate.
Be that as it may, the Polish resentment of the Jewish
propaganda against them is deep and bitter and their spirit of
retaliation in this country proceeds against the Jewish pocketbook.
The boycott is now well advanced all through this country and is
active in every channel of trade, extending even to places of
From another source comes the information that other racial
groups, namely, Russians, Ukrainians, Roumanians, Lithuanians,
Czecho-Slovaks, Jugo-Slavs, Findlanders, Letts, all of Slavic origin
will join in this Jewish boycott. Operations for management of same
are now under way."
The Department has received a number of telegrams from the
American-Polish organizations calling attention to the danger of racial
conflicts here and "condemning the insincere tactics of the
Jewish imperialists". (See particularly telegram from mass
meeting of 15,000 in Boston June 8, 1919 representing 200,000
Polish-Americans in Massachusetts, and telegram of June 15, 1919 from
mass meeting at Newark, N.J.) This last telegram also charges that
Jewish employers in America have discharged Polish workers and Jewish
landlords have evicted Polish tenants.
If such oppression is practiced on any large scale by the
American Jews it will inevitably strengthen the boycott movement
among the American Slavs and continue to fan the flame of mutual
hatred between the two nationalities.
- - - - - - - - -
At this point, the document break off. There have been
published citations of this document which indicate that it is of
greater length and scope than the above reproduced materials. A
search is being conducted for the lost portions. If and when these
materials are located, they will be posted on PAPUREC’s website.
Anmerkung: Der am
Thema interessierte Leser findet auf „luebeck-kunterbunt.de“ diverse
weitere Beiträge zu den „Protokollen“. Die tiefschürfendste
Abhandlung aus jüngerer Zeit ist „Die Protokolle der Weisen von Zion
erfüllt“ von dem katholischen Theologen Johannes Rothkranz, Verlag
Anton A. Schmid, Durach 2004.